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The effect of waste material electrode on the properties of positive electrodes in lead-acid batteries

JANKOWSKA E., MAJCHRZYCKI W., MARTYŁA A., MAJCHRZYCKI Ł. Please Cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 11–12, 691–702 The study allowed to observe changes in morphology and phase composition of plates depending on the amount of introduced waste material. The phase composition of positive electrodes measured after the formation process showed no significant differences between groups with different content of waste material. The positive plates with waste electrode material addition revealed presence of 4PbO·PbSO4 which was absent in the reference group, and a lower content of tetragonal phase lead oxide (II). The morphology of the material indicated that in the mass with waste material addition the presence of fine crystal structures with an elongated shape increased, and in the reference group the flake crystallites disappeared. In case of the positive plates in a charged state, it was noted that the increase in waste material content in the mass clearly implied an increase in participation of disordered structures. After the discharge a comparable...
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Thermoplastic polyurethane-based nanocomposites reinforced with carbon fillers

STAFIN K., LESZCZYŃSKA A., PIELICHOWSKI K. Please Cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 11–12, 685–690 Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) behaves both as a crosslinking rubber and thermoplast at ambient temperature during use and at elevated processing temperature, respectively. In this paper, thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with carbon nanofillers (e.g. carbon nanotubes, graphene and expanded graphite) was presented. Carbon nanofillers improve mechanical strength, thermal stability and are effective modifiers for manufacturing electrically conductive nanocomposites. Improved or new properties of TPU nanocomposites depend not only on the amount of filler and the method of its incorporation into the polymer matrix, but also on the occurrence of a specific interactions between the filler and rigid or soft TPU segments. Therefore the proper selection and modification of chemical structure of the polymer and filler are crucial for the successful manufacturing of new material with desired properties. Read more in pdf pdf-icon  ...
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Characterization of liquid products from waste tires pyrolysis

Bogumiła WRZESIŃSKA*, Roman KRZYWDA, Tomasz WĄSOWSKI, Leon GRADOŃ – Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 10, 611–615 It is estimated that about 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year. After use they pass to the stream of waste, representing a significant part of them [1]. So far, the main method of tires thermal recycling was burning, mainly as a fuel in cement plants. An alternative way of car tires reprocessing is pyrolysis, which is a thermal, anaerobic decomposition of organic material contained in the tyres at elevated temperature (from 300°C to 900°C). Pyrolytic oil is one of the key products of pyrolysis. The oil is a dark brown or black coloured liquid of medium viscosity with a characteristic sulphurous smell. It is mainly a mixture of paraffin, olefin and aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Properties of pyrolytic oil are similar to heating or diesel fuel, which indicates...
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CO2-to-methanol conversion – an alternative energy storage solution

Andrzej WILK*, Lucyna WIĘCŁAW-SOLNY, Tomasz SPIETZ, Adam TATARCZUK – Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 10, 626–633 Using carbon oxides in synthesis of fuels is an extensively researched subject, since studies devoted to this problem have been conducted as long as since the beginning of the previous century. The two major reactions were the Sabatier process, which consisted in carbon dioxide hydrogenation to methane, and the Fisher-Tropsch process, being extensively applied to obtain fuels through carbon monoxide hydrogenation. On account of the contemporary environmental protection requirements, it is necessary to reduce emission of carbon dioxide, since it is commonly considered to be the main factor responsible for global climate changes. The CO2 emission reduction technologies which are most frequently taken into consideration include CCS-based solutions which consist in carbon dioxide capture, transport and underground (predominantly) storage. However, carbon dioxide may also function as a single-carbon building molecule in organic synthesis, therefore, CCU technologies...
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The use of zirconium oxy-hydroxide for removing anions from liquid industrial waste

Barbara SOŁTYSIK*, Jolanta MIŚKIEWICZ, Mariola BODZEK-KOCHEL, Joanna GLUZIŃSKA, Marzena PYSZ – New Chemical Syntheses Institute, Inorganic Chemistry Division „IChN” in Gliwice, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 10, 644–649 Environmental requirements necessitate the implementation of the so-called clean technology, whose main determinants are: sustainable use of raw materials, improvement of energy efficiency and action in the broad sense of environmental protection. Important role in this type of technologies play a zirconium compounds, such as zirconium dioxide and zirconium oxy-hydroxide. Physicochemical nature of these compounds determines that they are mainly used in catalysis and in ion exchange. They have amphoteric properties, they are practically insoluble in water, their estimated solubility is 1.1·10–54 [1]. They are well soluble in strong mineral acids and in highly concentrated alkali. Moreover, they have specific surface and structural properties [2]. Zirconium compounds play a significant role in many branches of industry. It is due to their mechanical and chemical properties, including the absence or low toxicity...
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