Industrial hemp grown in remediated land used for energy MAŃKOWSKI J., KOŁODZIEJ J., BARANIECKI P.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2014, 68, 10, 901–904
Biomass is an energy feedstock which, unlike fossil fuels, contributes no additional CO2 amounts to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide emitted during combustion of biomass is absorbed during the plant growth. The research results show that 1 hectare (ha) of hemp assimilates approximately 2.5 t of CO2. Hemp is characterized by high biomass yield reaching even 15 t/ha.
The potential of biomass for obtaining of raw materials and chemical products SZWACH I., KULESZA R.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2014, 68, 10, 893–900
Nowadays, a rapid development of applications of the biomass technology for production of various kinds of materials and chemical products is being observed. The concept of biomass covers wastes and residues of biological origin from the food industry, including waste fats (recycled vegetable oils, waste animal fats). Those wastes create an opportunity for obtaining many valuable raw materials. There are multidirectional possibilities of employing products from biomass processing for production of specialty additives such as plasticizers, lubricants and stabilizers. This is what encourages addressing this issue.
Keywords: biomass, chemical products, bio-oleochemistry, lubricants
Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impact of biomass cultivation processes dedicated for energy purposes
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 11, 1190-1195
Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA ? Life Cycle Assessment) in Poland is still a relatively new method of estimating the environmental impact of production processes. The main objective of the analysis is effective management of various processes in order to minimize consumption of non-renewable raw materials, fuels and energy and also effective management of by-products and waste. Application of LCA allows also for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with Directive 2009/28/EC of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. In this publication life cycle assessment as a method of assessing the environmental impact of biomass cultivation dedicated for energy purposes was presented. The range of analysis, key unit processes with material and energy inputs and waste and emissions generated
as well as the main impact categories allowing for interpretation of analysis results were defined.
Keywords: LCA? Life Cycle Assessment,...
The use of renewable sources for synthesis of cosmetics ingredients.
Feliczak -Guzik A., Jagodzi ńska K., KROMA A., Nowak I.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 2, 123-128
Depletion of non-renewable sources of energy and materials has stimulated the search for new ways to generate chemicals, energy and materials using renewable sources. The best renewable resource is the one that can be supplied in a relatively short period of time and whose amount is in principle unlimited. Such substrates come from plants, animals or ecosystems and can be regenerated through sustainable management.
Keywords: green chemistry, renewable sources, biomass, cosmetics ingredients...
Marcin KOPCZYŃSKI, Jarosław ZUWAŁA ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 540-551
The paper presents the idea of biomass torrefaction process and discusses selected physicochemical properties of solid products of raw biomass torrefaction, which were produced in laboratory conditions, as well as biocoals produced from energy willow, sawdust from coniferous trees and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) ? with use of an industrial system. The paper also discusses the results of a comparative analysis concerning the possibilities of using torrefacted biomass as a fuel for producing energy; the analysis was
conducted on the basis of selected physicochemical properties and an assessment of the tendency of the analysed fuels to form residues contaminating boiler elements.
Substituting raw biomass with torrefacted biomass may allow for increasing its mass share in the total stream of fuel directed to the boiler, and thus for increasing production volume of energy qualified as energy from RES in co-combustion units.
Biomass is the only renewable energy source which can constitute a source for...
Alina REJMAN-BURZYŃSKA, Halina MAKSYMIAK-LACH, Eugeniusz JĘDRYSIK ?Central Mining Institute in Katowice
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 446?453
Biogas is produced in the process of organic substance decomposition via methane fermentation and contains 50?75% of methane (CH4) and 25?50% of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as small amounts of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen, mercaptans and other gases. Only biogas containing at least 40% of methane can be used to produce thermal or electric energy.
The main resources used to produce biogas on an industrial scale are organic waste, including wastewater residues, agricultural and food waste, animal manure and organic fractions of municipal waste. The amount and composition of biogas depend on the chemical composition of the resource fed to fermentation and on process parameters (reaction time, temperature). 1 kg of carbohydrates yields, on average, 0.42 m3 of CH4, of proteins ? 0.47 m3 of CH4, while of fats ? 0.75 m3 of CH4, but fats are characterised by a long...