Methods for sweetening natural and shale gas KoRPYŚ M., WÓJCIK J., SYnoWIEC P.M.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2014, 68, 211–215
The article presents an overview of the methods used for removing acid impurities from natural and shale gas. In this paper the main attention is focused on how to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from the raw gas.
Supercritical extraction of plant material with carbon dioxide. Scaling up from laboratory to ?-technical scale
BUJNOWSKI Z., BRZOZOWSKI R., SZARLIK S., CYBULSKI J., JEZIERSKA-ZIĘBA M., KĄKOL B., DĄBROWSKI Z., GOŚ A.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 9, 849-858
Velocity and yield of the extraction of linseed cake and leafs of green tea with supercritical carbon dioxide were tested. Initially both processes were tested in the laboratory scale (150 cm3) under pressure of 20 MPa, using a dried and grinded plant feed (90-140 g). The influence of an entrainer was also tested. Optimized conditions such as temperature were used in scaling up the extraction. The ? scale process was carried out in the extractor of 10 dm3 volume and under pressure of 25 MPa. Results achieved in the large scale experiments confirmed conclusions from the laboratory experiments.
Keywords: supercritical extraction, carbon dioxide, linseed, green tea leafs
Polish industrial installations for extracting plant materials in supercritical conditions
RÓJ E., DOBRZYŃ SKA-INGER A.
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 9, 827-836
In the paper the national technological achievements in the extraction of raw materials has been discussed. Technology for extraction of raw materials in industrial-scale plant was designed and implemented in the Fertilizer Institute (INS) in Puławy. In 2000 INS launched as a first in the country, as well as in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, industrial scale plant for the extraction of hops of capacity of 3000 t/y, operating at pressure up to 300 bar, sufficient to meet the national demand for processing of Polish hops and the hop processing service for other customers. The developed technology ensures high efficiency recovery of resins and essential oils, and meets the highest quality requirements. In mid-2011 INS started commissioning of another plant for the extraction of raw plant materials, also using technology developed in the INS. The plant with a nominal capacity of 2000 t/y belongs to universal type plant and will...
Jerzy WASILEWSKI, Jolanta ZIMOCH ? Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis ?Blachownia?, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Poland
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 528-539
The problems connected with CO2 emissions as well as the costs of CO2 abatement and the se as a feed for synthesis processes were presented. Modernisation of commercial processes, production of bio-alcohols through fermentation of cellulose, and photosynthesis with the use of algae to produce bio-ethanol, algal oil and bio-diesel, these are promising options for the future energy carriers manufacturing methods.
The global economic development, increasing population, increasing demand for electric appliances and consumer electronics, general mechanisation of services and manufacturing processes as well as expanding use of transport facilities, all that contributes to the growing energy demand. Additionally, the resources of conventional fossil energy sources which are limited, rising extraction costs and rising prices of those fuels, and the environmental pollution which is more and more severe, give rise to the general concern over the problem of producing energy in cheaper ways. The factors as...
Tomasz CHMIELNIAK, Józef POPOWICZ ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 415?422
The reasons for the development of fuel gasification technologies in power engineering and chemical industry that has been observed in recent years are high efficiency of the gasification process, the possibility of a multi-purpose use of process gas in both energy production and chemical synthesis, as well as relatively small negative impact of those technologies on the natural environment. Besides the intensive development of fuel gasification technologies, fluidised bed gasification is drawing an increasing interest. Process temperatures lower than in entrained-flow reactors (below the temperature of ash melting) influence the reduction in investment and operation costs and improve the reliability and availability of the discussed technology. Moreover, fluidised bed reactors are considered to be an attractive alternative for gasification process in entrained-flow reactors due to their high performance, moderate oxygen and steam requirements, and high fuel flexibility .