Tag Archives: Conference ENVIRONMENTAL

Genetically modified crops and food: pros and cons

Genetically modified crops and food: pros and cons LISOWSKA K. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1193-1203 In Poland genetically modified crops are not regulated by law. Polish Parliament has been discussing the proposal of a new act concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) since 2009 and did not manage to finalize before the end of its term. Regulations concerning GMOs were also contained in the seed act, but it was vetoed by Polish President. There is also a great debate in the society, whether GM crops are required in Polish agriculture? Taking part in this dispute I review the flaws of the genetic engineering methodology, insufficiency of the risk assessment, potential health and environmental hazards as well as socio-economic and political problems concerning GM crops and food/feed. Certainly, decisions concerning GM crops legislation must not be influenced either politically or by any international economical organizations or corporate lobbies. I am deeply convinced that according to current knowledge, 10-years moratorium should be announced for GM crops cultivation in Poland. This is concerned with potential safety issues and...
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The phenomenon of singlet oxygen

The phenomenon of singlet oxygen KRUKIEWICZ K. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1190-1192 Singlet oxygen has been the subject of intensive research for almost 80 years. Its unusual properties, like high reactivity and oxidizing properties, make it a versatile chemical reagent. Photogeneration is considered as the most effective method of singlet oxygen formation, though it needs to be conducted in situ due to the short lifetime of that form of oxygen. Singlet oxygen has been already applied in the area of medicine and wastewater treatment. Key words: singlet oxygen, photogeneration, photosensitizer, wastewater treatment Read more: pdf-icon...
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Micromasters of the Earth. Bacteria.

Micromasters of the Earth WĘGRZYN A. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1182-1189 Bacteria are the most common and numerous organisms on the planet. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, water, the live bodies of plants and animals as well as in hot springs, radioactive waste and hydrothermal vents. This article presents the most interesting microorganisms and possibilities of using them in different branches of biotechnology. Keywords: microorganisms, bacteria, extremophiles, biodegradation of xenobiotics, bacterial toxins Read more: pdf-icon...
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Biofuels ? have we exhausted all the possibilities?

Biofuels ? have we exhausted all the possibilities? KIJEŃSKA M., KIJEŃSKI J. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1169-1176 Given the projected 54% increase in world energy consumption in the period 2001-2025 and the depletion of mineral resources for satisfying energy needs is essential to explore the possibility of replacing conventional sources of renewable energy. The article discusses the concept of biofuels, such as liquid substances, gases and solid fuels produced from biomass. Identified three generations of biofuels and the conditions necessary to optimize the production of sustainable biofuels. The authors concludes that - despite the projected increase in production - biofuel never entirely satisfy the energy needs of humanity. Keywords: unconventional sources of renewable energy, biofuels Read more: pdf-icon  ...
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New principles for 3rd phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme

New principles for 3rd phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme GIETKA A., ŁOKAJ K. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1145-1146 The most significant issues, being the subject of a more expanded lecture, concerning new principles for 3rd phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme presented in Directive 2009/29/EC amending Directive 2003/87/EC are described in this paper. The main changes introduced by the revised EU ETS Directive are presented, including broadening the scope of Directive, inter alia, by covering the chemical industry. The threats to the Polish chemical industry, including the fertilizer sector, were identified. Also Polish complaint submitted to the Court of Justice of the European Union was mentioned. This application refers to the violation of the non-discrimination principle by the new Directive and the interference in the energy mix of the Member State. Key words: European Union Emission Trading Scheme, chemical industry, benchmark, Court of Justice of the European Union Read more: pdf-icon...
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Sustainable development ? a threatened future

Sustainable development ? a threatened future ZIELIŃSKI S. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1133-1144 The concept of the eco-development came into being at 1st United Nations Conference on ?Environment and development? in 1972, but this concept was formulated and defined for the first time in 1987 in the Brundtland report ?Our Common Future?, in which the idea of sustainable development was presented. This paper presents the preservation of the environment and its natural resources, possibilities for improving living conditions and safety of all human beings also against the world population growth as well as the potentials and constraints of sustainable development. The author states that it is difficult to predict precisely which problems and to what extent will be solved by the present generations, and which will be left for the next ones. However, human inventiveness and innovative approach to overcome difficulties are as unpredictable as processes occurring in ecosystems or social systems. Keywords: sustainable development, Brundtland report, natural resources, eco-development, population, Gross Domestic Product Read more: pdf-icon Read more