Tag Archives: Energy for Chemistry

Biogas from waste ? (bio)fuel for transport ? barriers and perspectives

Radosław POMYKAŁA, Paulina ŁYKO ? AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Mineral Processing, Krakow, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 454?461 Introduction Renewable energy sources as a way to supplement and even to replace conventional fuels, is a hot topic since many years. Virtually any type of fossil fuel can suggest several alternatives to the alternatives. For virtually any type of fossil fuel, several ?green? substitutes can be suggested as the alternatives. Depending on the transient fashions, available technologies and above all legal regulations attention of professionals and public opinion is directed to the other kind of ?replacement? of fossil fuels. The interest in, however, is not always distributed in proportion to the real benefits and the possibility of obtaining a source of energy in Poland. Keywords: Biogas, biomethane, CNG, municipal waste The article focuses on biogas as a fuel highly prospective and large manufacturing potential, which until recently was known mainly as...
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The energy potential of biogas ? an estimation of biogas production resources in Poland

Alina REJMAN-BURZYŃSKA, Halina MAKSYMIAK-LACH, Eugeniusz JĘDRYSIK ?Central Mining Institute in Katowice Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 446?453 Introduction Biogas is produced in the process of organic substance decomposition via methane fermentation and contains 50?75% of methane (CH4) and 25?50% of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as small amounts of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen, mercaptans and other gases. Only biogas containing at least 40% of methane can be used to produce thermal or electric energy. The main resources used to produce biogas on an industrial scale are organic waste, including wastewater residues, agricultural and food waste, animal manure and organic fractions of municipal waste. The amount and composition of biogas depend on the chemical composition of the resource fed to fermentation and on process parameters (reaction time, temperature). 1 kg of carbohydrates yields, on average, 0.42 m3 of CH4, of proteins ? 0.47 m3 of CH4, while of fats ? 0.75 m3 of CH4, but fats are characterised by a long...
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Energy recovery from waste plastics

Ryszard WASILEWSKI ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland; Tomasz SIUDYGA ? Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 435?445 Introduction Widespread application of plastic is accompanied by negative effect of wastes production constituting a serious environmental problem. An important role in this area is played by the introduction, in recent years, in the countries of the European Union stronger restrictions on the disposal of organic waste and the requirement to achieve high levels of recovery and recycling of certain waste groups, in which waste plastics constitute a large part. Waste packages, as well as building and automotive wastes are the main sources of plastics wastes (Fig. 1). Energy recovery from waste plastics 01 Waste plastics at first should be recycled by mechanical or chemical recycling and when it is not cost-effective utilized for energy recovery. According to Plastics Europe Foundation 25.1 mln Mg of plastic waste were produced in 2011 [1], 6.3 mln Mg of these...
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Waste plastics as a source of solid and liquid fuels

Andrzej MIANOWSKI ? Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 423?434 Introduction One can put forward a claim that the degree of civilization development depends on two factors: the way of obtaining energy and the way of energy consumption. Together with the sustained development strategy, which aims at slowing down the process of using up natural and energy resources and the irreversible changes in the natural environment of the Earth, two target models of human civilization development have appeared. Let us summarize ?Introduction? to monograph [1] by saying that the first model is a closed system of manufacturing and consumption of goods, which exchanges only energy with the surroundings. In the other model, the system is constructed from renewable sources of materials and energy carriers; consequently, the post-consumer waste is naturally degraded. Thus, in the first model, civilization development and the level of technological progress depend...
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Fluidised bed gasification of coal with CO2 for the production of synthesis gas

Tomasz CHMIELNIAK, Józef POPOWICZ ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 415?422 Introduction The reasons for the development of fuel gasification technologies in power engineering and chemical industry that has been observed in recent years are high efficiency of the gasification process, the possibility of a multi-purpose use of process gas in both energy production and chemical synthesis, as well as relatively small negative impact of those technologies on the natural environment. Besides the intensive development of fuel gasification technologies, fluidised bed gasification is drawing an increasing interest. Process temperatures lower than in entrained-flow reactors (below the temperature of ash melting) influence the reduction in investment and operation costs and improve the reliability and availability of the discussed technology. Moreover, fluidised bed reactors are considered to be an attractive alternative for gasification process in entrained-flow reactors due to their high performance, moderate oxygen and steam requirements, and high fuel flexibility [1]. A...
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Capture of CO2 from exhaust gases on pilot scale using amine absorption

Adam TATARCZUK, Marek ŚCIĄŻKO, Marcin STEC ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland; Stanisław TOKARSKI ? TAURON Wytwarzanie S.A. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 407?414 Introduction According to Article 10 sec. 1 of the amended Directive EU ETS 2009/29/EC, in the third settlement period (2013÷2020) of the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme, auctioning shall be the basic method of allocating emission allowances [1]. An exception to this rule are the energy-intensive industries (exposed to the so-called carbon leakage), other industries (pursuant to the principle of gradual derogation from free allocation of allowances), as well as power generation industry in certain Member States subject to derogation, i.e. Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania and Poland. In return, those industries shall be obligated to invest in industry modernisation equal to the value of allocated free allowances. This means that as of 1 January 2013 the national power sector, forced to incur environmental costs related to CO2 emissions,...
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Impact of the composition of absorption blend on the efficiency of CO2 removal

Andrzej WILK, Lucyna WIĘCŁAW-SOLNY, Aleksander KRÓTKI, Dariusz ŚPIEWAK ? Centre for Process Research, Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 399?406 Introduction The amine absorption processes are widely used in the industry to purify refinery gases, process gases or natural gas. Recently, amine absorption has also been considered for application in CO2 capture from exhaust fumes created as by-product of electric power generation from fossil fuels. Amine absorption is based on a reversible reaction between weak bases, e.g. ethanolamine, and acidic gases, including i.a. carbon dioxide. CO2-containing gas (e.g. exhaust fumes) is fed into the absorption column, where it comes in counter flow contact with unsaturated sorption solution. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by the solution, while the gas leaving the column is purified. The solution with absorbed CO2 is pre-heated with a solution regenerated in the heat exchanger, and then directed to the regenerator. In the regenerator, in the supplied heat, the amine-CO2 compound...
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CO2 emission ? civilisation?s progress or investment development inhibiting factor

Aleksander SOBOLEWSKI, Andrzej CZAPLICKI ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 387?398 Introduction Access to energy sources is the very basic prerequisite of civilisational and economic development, and long-term forecasts imply that the mankind will demand 2.5-3 times more energy in the year 2050 than in 2010. In the 20th century, this demand was mainly satisfied by means of fossil fuels. It is them that one definitely owes the unprecedented economic growth of the last hundred years. However, there are also numerous symptoms implying that the age of fossil fuels is at twilight due to depletion of their deposits. The mankind will face the necessity to particularly rely on nuclear power and renewable energy sources. Under the Polish conditions, the highest hopes are certainly linked with biomass as well as wind and solar energy [1]. For many years, numerous organisations have appealed to alert the world about the global warming menace. However,...
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Solid Fuels as CxHyOz Molecules ? Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects

Marek ŚCIĄŻKO ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze - Leszek STĘPIEŃ ? AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 5, 379?386 Introduction Solid fuels, including primarily hard coal and lignite originated as a result of physicochemical conversion of primary organic substance under the influence of temperature, pressure and in a basically anaerobic environment. This process, referred to as a metamorphism phase, was accompanied by, inter alia: evolution of carbon dioxide, water and methane. The higher conversion degree was achieved by the original organic substance, the more ordered was coal structure and increasingly larger domains of condensed aromatic structures. Ultimately the fuel properties are decided by the temperature-time history of conversion, manifesting itself in the elemental composition expressed mainly by the C, H, O, N, and S content and additionally by the ash content. To determine technological usability of coal additional physicochemical analyses are sometimes performed, such as: plasticity and caking ability, when...
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