Methodology for modeling of the jet formation process in linear sharped charges Andrzej WOJEWÓDKA, Tomasz WITKOWSKI ? Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology,Gliwice; Poland Please cited as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 1, 28-35 Linear shaped charges are used in the mining industry, industry, police, army, and in many other braches of industry. Methods of computer modeling can be used more widely if geometrical and material parameters are selected more accurately. Standoff dstance is one of such parameters that can be optimized using computer simulation methods. The application of these methods can shorten the time of the parameters selection and can minimize the costs. Keywords: explosives, numerical modeling, Munroe effect. Read more: ...Read more
Tag Archives: explosives
Hydrazine complexes of transition metals as perspective explosives Andrzej WOJEWÓDKA, Janusz BEŁZOWSKI - Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry; Gliwice; Poland Please cited as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 1, 20-27 Synthesis of nitrate and perchlorate complexes of cobalt, nickel, cadmium, zinc and chromium with hydrazine was done. Structure of obtained compounds was confirmed by instrumental methods, like: infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Obtained compound was tested for them friction, impact and electrostatic sensitivity. Keywords: hydrazine complexes, explosives, friction sensitivity, impact sensitivity, electrostatic sensitivity Read more: ...Read more
Methods for obtaining octogen (hmx).MATYS Z., POWAŁA D., ORZECHOWSKI A., MARANDA A. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 1, 58-63 The paper describes the methods for manufacturing octogen, a modern, thermally stable, brisant explosive. Two production technologies for obtaining the compound developed at the Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry have been presented. The first method uses the nitration of urea with a nitrating mixture (nitric acid and oleum), and the cyclisation of dinitrourea (DNU) with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and ammonia to form a semiproduct ? DPT, which is then subject to nitrolysis after adding the solution of ammonia nitrate in nitric acid. This method has been implemented in industrial applications. The second method consists in the nitrolysis of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) with the solution of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid in the presence of acetic acid, acetic anhydride and trioxane (a trimer of formaldehyde). Keywords: explosives, octogen, synthesis, technology Read more: ...
Study of the detonation parameters the mixtures of nitroguanidine with flaked aluminium.MARANDA A., SZAŁKOWSKI K., PASZULA J., ORZECHOWSKI A., POWAŁA D., Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 1, 50-57 At this point in time nitroguanidine is used as component of explosive mixtures described with high detonation parameters and low sensibility to mechanical stimuli. It is also used in some kinds of rocket propellant. The results of attempts to achieve nitroguanidine with isometric grains are shown in this paper. Then it was used for preparation of mixture with aluminium powder with different content of metallic component. Then it was used for preparation of mixtures with flaky aluminium powder with different content of metallic component. The measurements of detonation velocity and intensively of blast wave was taken for received mixtures. Keywords: nitroguanidine, explosives, detonation parameters Read more: ...
Jolanta BIEGAŃSKA ? Department of Technologies and Installations for Waste Management, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Abstract: Exergy is a term introduced to thermodynamics to determine ability to perform work in the environment with relation to human activity. Manufactured industrial explosive materials are destined mainly to get unmined stone. Hence, their use is connected with the realization of the effective work. The exergy loss related to obtaining solid stone in mining where explosive materials are used should be taken into consideration. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 13, 47-52 Introduction In thermodynamics, an ability to perform work under natural conditions, within the area of human production is a touchstone for determining quality of energy. This criterion of quality was called exergy by Z. Rant . The notion of exergy is related to the irreversibleness of thermodynamic processes. A numerous bibliography of over 2500 items concerning suggestions how to use exergy was collected by Sciubba and Wall . In Poland, professor Szargut [3÷11] dedicated a lot...Read more
Andrzej WOJEWÓDKA, Tomasz WITKOWSKI ? Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice Abstract: This paper describes the analysis of possibilities of finding the substitute for lead azide among the derivatives of 1H-tetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole. The synthesis methods of these compounds and their derivatives are presented. This paper presents the data on the standard enthalpy of formation, sensitivity to friction and impact as well as the data on the standard parameters of detonation: pressure (C-J) and velocity. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 1, 19-24 According to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), energetic materials are chemical compounds or mixtures containing fuel and oxidiser, which ? due to a rapid reaction, have the ability to release heat and gas products. However, only energetic materials having the ability to detonate under specific conditions are called the explosives. Among them, the following explosives can be distinguished: resistant to incidental stimuli, secondary explosives and primary explosives with the increased sensitivity to external stimuli ?...Read more
Andrzej MARANDA, Radosław SZYMAŃSKI ? Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw Abstract: This paper presents the measurement results of detonation velocity and critical diameter of two-component mixtures containing ammonium nitrate (V) and organic fuel, and of three-component mixtures which additionally contain aluminium powder. The effects of the type and composition of organic fuel on detonation parameters of these mixtures were determined. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 1, 13-18 Introduction The first explosives containing ammonium nitrate (V) were produced at the beginning of the 19th century. Two scientists, Grindel and Robin, substituted saltpetre in gun powder with ammonium nitrate. Reise and Millon also reported the explosive properties of this mixture in 1849 . The first patented mixture containing ammonium nitrate and fuel was ammoniakkrut ? a mixture of ammonium nitrate (V) and charcoal in proportion 80/20 . The patent was filed by two Swedish scientists, Ohlsson and Norrbin, in 1867 . At the end of the 19th century, such mixtures began to be...Read more
Coordination explosives Janusz BEŁZOWSKI, Andrzej WOJEWÓDKA ? Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Marcin ROMANOWSKI ? Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis ?Blachownia?, Kędzierzyn-Koźle Please cited as: CHEMIK 2010, 64, 1, 21-24 The history and evolution of explosives reach about two millennia backwards. Starting form the black powder, thought nitro-compounds and nitro-esthers, current directions of researches concern coordination transition metal compounds, called compounded salt. This researches leads to a number of new chemical structures which posses explosive parameters, just like blasting or primary explosives and propellants. Keywords: explosives, transition metal complexes, laser ignition primary explosives, OPCs Read more: ...Read more
Modern high-energetic polymers Karol KOŻUCH, Andrzej WOJEWÓDKA ? Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Please cited as: CHEMIK 2010, 64, 1, 15-20 The article is about new high-energetic polymers. This article comprises two main sections. The first section outlines historical background of using high energetic polymers, gives basics theory of explosives and chemistry of high energetic materials. The second part contain description of high energetic polymers which seems to be the most prospective. Attention, in this part of article, is focused on several selected polymers included glycidyl azide polymers, poly(3-nitratometyl-3-metyl oxetane), poly(glycidyl nitrate) or nitrated hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene. Keywords: polymer, explosives, GAP, PNIMMO, PGLYN Read more: ...Read more
Polyolefin composites for special applications Marcin ROMANOWSKI ? Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis ?Blachownia? Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Janusz BEŁZOWSKI ? Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Bartłomiej KRAMARCZYK - Nitroerg S.A., Bieruń, Aneta BULSKA - Nitroerg S.A., Bieruń Please cited as: CHEMIK 2010, 64, 1, 7-13 The article presents wide spectra of applications of polyolefin composites as materials for special purposes. These polymers are used as binders in plastic bonded explosives, in rocket propellants, in safe optical priming charges as well as in elements of flexible linear shaped charges. Polyolefins are also used for production of protective elements against harmful agents on the battlefield. Keywords: polymers, polyolefins, binders, explosives, radiation Read more: ...Read more