Tag Archives: Raw materials for chemistry

Glycerol hydrogenolysis using in situ generated and molecular hydrogen

Agnieszka WOŁOSIAK-HNAT, Eugeniusz MILCHERT ? Institute of Organic Chemical Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 572-579 The comparison of the course of hydrogenolysis performed in protic solvent as a source of hydrogen in situ with hydrogenolysis carried out in the presence of molecular hydrogen was made. As a donor of hydrogen molecule 1- and 2-propanol were used. Hydrogenolyses with hydrogen generated in situ were conducted using two methods: under inert gas pressure (nitrogen) and pressureless ? in the absence of inert gas and molecular hydrogen. Introduction Biodiesel production based on transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol or ethanol provides large amounts of waste glycerol, containing about 30?80 %wt of glycerol [1]. For every 10 kg of biodiesel produced, about 1 kg of waste glycerol is formed [2]. Therefore, there is a need to manage the glycerol contained therein. Firstly, the methods of manufacturing glycerol to more valuable chemical compounds have been sought. One such method is hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol....
Read more

The determination of the specific heat capacity of coal based on literature data

Bartosz LEŚNIAK, Łukasz SŁUPIK, Grzegorz JAKUBINA ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 560-571 The article discusses the coal properties having influence on its specific heat capacity. The literature correlations for the determination the specific heat capacity of coal, depending on the temperature and the volatile matter content, are presented. To examine the correlation, calculations for several coals of known properties were made and obtained results are showed in the form of a specific heat ? temperature diagram. The received results of the analysis of correlations and suggestions for its range of application are presented. Introduction The optimization of chemical processing of coal requires a lot of research and analysis. Understanding the phenomena, that occur during the process of coal gasification or pyrolysis, allow to control them in such a way, as to achieve the best results, which is the highest quality product with minimal energy consumption and no emissions into the environment. Increasingly, for this purpose, mathematical models of the...
Read more

Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Palm Kernel Shell as agro biomass used in the energy industry

Barbara JAGUSTYN, Iga PATYNA, Agnieszka SKAWIŃSKA ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 552-559 The Polish market of biomass from energy crops and agricultural waste is unstable and strongly dependent on the area of agricultural production land and biomass crops. Import of Palm Kernel Shell may be an additional source of obtaining biomass for energy purposes. Energy and heat manufacturers from all over the world are interested in that combustible material. This paper described an attempt to classify PKS as biomass used for energy purposes. Results from analysing energy characteristics, chemical properties and content biodegradable fraction content in PKS samples tested in IChPW samples of PKS were presented in comparison to characteristics of other types of biomass of agricultural origin. An increase in using energy from renewable sources (RES) is one of the strategic targets set by the European Union [1, 2]. Increasing prices of conventional fossil fuels, their negative effects on the environment during their use for energy purposes and possible...
Read more

Torrefacted biomass ? a new fuel for the power industry

Marcin KOPCZYŃSKI, Jarosław ZUWAŁA ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 540-551 The paper presents the idea of biomass torrefaction process and discusses selected physicochemical properties of solid products of raw biomass torrefaction, which were produced in laboratory conditions, as well as biocoals produced from energy willow, sawdust from coniferous trees and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) ? with use of an industrial system. The paper also discusses the results of a comparative analysis concerning the possibilities of using torrefacted biomass as a fuel for producing energy; the analysis was conducted on the basis of selected physicochemical properties and an assessment of the tendency of the analysed fuels to form residues contaminating boiler elements. Substituting raw biomass with torrefacted biomass may allow for increasing its mass share in the total stream of fuel directed to the boiler, and thus for increasing production volume of energy qualified as energy from RES in co-combustion units. Introduction Biomass is the only renewable energy source which can constitute a source for...
Read more

Selected methods for energy saving and generation in the chemical industry.

Jerzy WASILEWSKI, Jolanta ZIMOCH ? Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis ?Blachownia?, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 528-539 The problems connected with CO2 emissions as well as the costs of CO2 abatement and the  se as a feed for synthesis processes were presented. Modernisation of commercial processes, production of bio-alcohols through fermentation of cellulose, and photosynthesis with the use of algae to produce bio-ethanol, algal oil and bio-diesel, these are promising options for the future energy carriers manufacturing methods. Introduction The global economic development, increasing population, increasing demand for electric appliances and consumer electronics, general mechanisation of services and manufacturing processes as well as expanding use of transport facilities, all that contributes to the growing energy demand. Additionally, the resources of conventional fossil energy sources which are limited, rising extraction costs and rising prices of those fuels, and the environmental pollution which is more and more severe, give rise to the general concern over the problem of producing energy in cheaper ways. The factors as...
Read more

Thermal bio-refinery

Janusz LASEK, Aleksander SOBOLEWSKI ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 514-527 The article presents the state of art on thermal bio-refinery in context of pilot and industrial scale deployments. It presents classification and basic characteristics of the unit processes in thermal bio-refinery, techno-economic analysis based on available data and assessment of development of different types of bio-refinery. Introduction According to the definition proposed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) ?bio-refinery is an integrated system of processes and equipment used to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass? [1]. Bio-refinery is therefore a system in which multidirectional and complex conversion of biomass is made. Implementation of thermochemical processes, such as gasification or pyrolysis, is one of the ways of converting biomass to obtain valuable products in bio-refinery. Application of thermo-chemical processes can take place within a single, comprehensive concept [2], or be part of a larger system, called ?two platforms?, which is divided into two paths: the...
Read more

Methanol as hydrogen donor in the alternative fuel synthesis

Ewa ŚMIGIERA, Jacek KIJEŃSKI, Osazuwa OSAWARU, Anna ZGUDKA, Antoni R. MIGDAŁ ? Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 502-513 This paper presents the possibilities for obtaining alternative fuels from polymer and fatty wastes in the flow system under the atmospheric pressure. This process is conducted in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts and involves using methanol as hydrogen donor in the reduction reaction of unsaturated compounds formed during waste processing. The obtained products (synthetic paraffin hydrocarbons) can be used as fuel oil or diesel fuel. The results from the research works are protected by one granted patent and one patent application. Introduction: High costs of extracting and processing fossil fuels and their depleting reserves as well as the limited global reserves of crude oil have generated a deep interest in alternative fuels. An increase in share of liquid biofuels and biocomponents, particularly those from wastes, in the market of liquid fuels consumed by the fuel and energy sector is a significant part of the sustainable...
Read more

The large-scale gasification for hydrogen, methanol and liquid fuel production

Krzysztof DRESZER, Lucyna WIĘCŁAW-SOLNY, Lesław ZAPART ? Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW), Zabrze, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 490-501 Coal is one of the most important sources of electrical energy in the world economy. Applying appropriate technologies enables its use also in the chemical and fuel sector. The development degree of available technologies guarantees the possibility of manufacturing the desired chemical products with high efficiency and compliance with environmental requirements. The decisive element in applying those technologies is the viability of the used processes, and that depends on the market environment of a considered investment. The paper presents an analysis of technical and economical conditions of converting coal to liquid fuels. Introduction Fossil fuels currently satisfy over 80% of world demand for energy. Still, the energy-climate policy of many countries, especially in the EU, aims at lowering their share in the fuel structure. The effect of such a policy in the EU was i.a. the 2008 adoption of the so called 3x20 climate package, which requires...
Read more

Why is it necessary to take a new look at a problem of raw materials for chemistry?

? an interview with Wojciech Lubiewa-Wieleżyński, President of the Board of Polish Chamber of Chemical Industry [Polska Izba Przemysłu Chemicznego] Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 6, 484-489 Mr President, what is the position of the European chemical industry at the global scene? Does it change? And how does it change? Only in 2010, the European chemical industry gave way to the position of the worldwide leader in sales volumes to China. This trend in losing the Europe?s leadership position to Asia and China could be observed from the year 2000. Since in the decade 2000?2010, the volume of chemical industry production sold in the European Union (EU 27) increased by 17%, whereas the global production increased by 64%, and in China as much as by 524%! Contribution of the European industry to sales on the global chemical market decreased from 36 to 21% in a twenty-year period 1991÷2011. Speciality chemicals constitute the largest sector of the European chemical industry, the other large sectors...
Read more