Tag Archives: Sustainable development

Burning the waste-necessity or the optimal method?

Burning the waste-necessity or the optimal method? KRAWCZYK Z. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 8, 727-745 Described is the problem of waste, our civilization cope with, and the methods employed to solve this problem. More detailed description is given to methods producing from waste fuels and energy. In Polish circumstances there will be dominance of waste burning or recycling their thermal energy. It is possible to deploy more profitable methods with production of both energy, fuels and chemical stock. This need chemists to enter complex system of local authorities, companies serving to them, landfills and incinerators. It is worthy of notice that pyrolytic treatment of biowastes makes possible to diminish atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. Keywords: waste, the extraction of fuels and energy from waste, landfills, waste, thermal waste disposal, chemical raw materials Read more: pdf-icon...
Read more

Genetically modified crops and food: pros and cons

Genetically modified crops and food: pros and cons LISOWSKA K. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1193-1203 In Poland genetically modified crops are not regulated by law. Polish Parliament has been discussing the proposal of a new act concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) since 2009 and did not manage to finalize before the end of its term. Regulations concerning GMOs were also contained in the seed act, but it was vetoed by Polish President. There is also a great debate in the society, whether GM crops are required in Polish agriculture? Taking part in this dispute I review the flaws of the genetic engineering methodology, insufficiency of the risk assessment, potential health and environmental hazards as well as socio-economic and political problems concerning GM crops and food/feed. Certainly, decisions concerning GM crops legislation must not be influenced either politically or by any international economical organizations or corporate lobbies. I am deeply convinced that according to current knowledge, 10-years moratorium should be announced for GM crops cultivation in Poland. This is concerned with potential safety issues and...
Read more

Sustainable development ? a threatened future

Sustainable development ? a threatened future ZIELIŃSKI S. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2011, 65, 11, 1133-1144 The concept of the eco-development came into being at 1st United Nations Conference on ?Environment and development? in 1972, but this concept was formulated and defined for the first time in 1987 in the Brundtland report ?Our Common Future?, in which the idea of sustainable development was presented. This paper presents the preservation of the environment and its natural resources, possibilities for improving living conditions and safety of all human beings also against the world population growth as well as the potentials and constraints of sustainable development. The author states that it is difficult to predict precisely which problems and to what extent will be solved by the present generations, and which will be left for the next ones. However, human inventiveness and innovative approach to overcome difficulties are as unpredictable as processes occurring in ecosystems or social systems. Keywords: sustainable development, Brundtland report, natural resources, eco-development, population, Gross Domestic Product Read more: pdf-icon Read more

Environmentally friendly catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides derived from the natural raw material ferrierite

Environmentally friendly catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides derived from the natural raw material ferrierite ĆWIKŁA-BUNDYRA W. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 6, 601-610 Selective catalytic reduction of NO with methane (CH4-SCR) was investigated over Co- and Fe- zeolites with ferrierite structure. The exchanged Co ions have been shown to exhibit activity in CH4-SCR of NO, while protons or Co species in Co-zeolites contributed to the CH4-SCR activity mostly by the increase of the NO reduction towards N2. The zeolites activity in SCR of NO (described as per metal weight) was determined as follows: Co-Fer > Fe-Fer for the highest Co loadings; for the average content of the Co ion in the zeolite (in terms of turnover frequency) it was comparable. The most active catalysts are characterized by the Co-laden large metal structure of the zeolite. The main factors contributing to the individual Co ions activity are suggested to be cation location in the inner zeolite structure, coordination to the framework, and catalytic ability of the Co ions. The results of the catalytic activity investigations...
Read more

Sorption of Zn(II) ions in the presence of methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA) on the anion exchangers of various basicity degree

Sorption of Zn(II) ions in the presence of methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA) on the anion exchangers of various basicity degree JACHUŁA J., HUBICKI Z. Please cite as: CHEMIK 2012, 66, 6, 595-600 The paper presents the results of the studies of the mechanism of Zn(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence of methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA) as a complexing agent. The anion exchangers of Lewatit type of various basicity degrees: strongly basic Lewatit MonoPlus M 500, average basic Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64 and weakly basic Lewatit MonoPlus MP 62 were applied. The kinetic parameters of Zn(II)-MGDA complexes sorption were calculated by means of the static method. There were also determined maxima sorption capacities from the Langmuir linear dependence. The FT-IR spectra of the anion exchanger Lewatit MonoPlus M 500 were registered before and after the sorption of Zn(II)-MGDA complexes. Keywords: Anion exchangers, Heavy metals, Chelating agents, Sorption, MGDA Read more: pdf-icon...
Read more

Using the deep oxidation process with Fenton?s reagent to remove formaldehyde from industrial wastewater

Andrzej ŁODYGA ? Fertilizer Research Institute, Puławy, Poland; Dorota MINDA-DATA? Grupa Azoty, Poland; Magdalena KOZIOŁ, Piotr TYŃSKI ? Fertilizer Research Institute, Puławy, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 7, 648?653 Abstract: Oxidation reaction with use of Fenton?s reagent is one of the most efficient and common methods of removing organic compounds from industrial wastewater. Fenton?s reagent is a mixture of Fe2+ and H2O2 ions and a source of hydroxyl radicals (OH?) with a high oxidizing potential. The paper presents examinations of Fenton process efficiency depending on solution pH, temperature and oxidation duration as well as on H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of the added Fenton?s reagent.   Formaldehyde is an organic compound commonly used in various industrial branches such as the textile, tanning, rubber, paper, photographic, founding and construction industry, as well as in biology and medicine. It is applied in the production of resins, adhesives, binders, dyes, paints and lacquers; it is also a disinfectant and a preservative, and constitutes an important substrate in organic synthesis, mainly in the synthesis of acetylene...
Read more

Soybean meal enriched with Cu(II) by biosorption ? a new product for animals

Zuzanna WITKOWSKA, Katarzyna CHOJNACKA, Mateusz SAMORAJ, Łukasz TUHY ?Institute of Inorganic Technology and Mineral Fertilizers, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 7, 642?647 Abstract: The aim was to develop a new generation feed additive with copper using the biosorption method. The process was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor with capacity of 2.5 dm3. Soybean meal constituted the matrix for microelement ions. The bed was enriched by pouring the solution with Cu(II) ions at concentration of 300 mg/dm3 from the top of the column. The process was conducted for 6 hours. The adsorption kinetics was described using Yoon and Nelson kinetic model. The analysis showed that after the first and the second hour, the degree of ion binding was 97.3 and 85.9%, respectively. In the next hours of the process the degree of ion biding was much lower and was 53.4, 33.2, 20.9 and 14.3% after third, fourth, fifth and sixth hour, respectively. Keywords: bio-sorption, feed additives, fixed-bed reactor, microelements, soybean meal A new generation of feed additive with copper...
Read more

Seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth: review

Łukasz TUHY, Jolanta CHOWAŃSKA, Katarzyna CHOJNACKA ? Institute of Inorganic Technology and Mineral Fertilizers, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 7, 636?641 Abstract: For increased efficiency of plant cultivation, new methods basing on seaweed extracts as biostimulants of plant growth are applied. Due to the presence of many biologically active compounds, seaweed extracts are widely used as plant stimulants. Thanks to bioactive substances, algae extracts can regulate the growth and development of plants. Application of seaweed extracts results in higher pathogen and environmental stress resistance in plants. Keywords: seaweeds, seaweed extracts, plant cultivation, biostimulants Seaweeds Seaweed extracts are the new type of products currently used in plant cultivation. The sources of seaweed extracts are different species of marine algae which seem to be valuable and not wholly discovered biological material [1]. For ages, extracts obtained from algae have been used as feed additives for animals nutrition improvement [2]. Furthermore, they have been used as industrial raw material or in production of natural...
Read more

The effect of granular fertilisers produced from industrial and municipal wastes on the content of some heavy metals in test plants

Edward KRZYWY, Ewa MOŻDŻER ? West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Land Cultivation and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 7, 628?635 Abstract: In the experiment being carried out, the effect of granular fertilisers being produced from industrial waste products, i.e. CaSO4?2H2O (waste product in production of multicomponent mineral fertilisers), FeSO4?7H2O (waste product in production of titanium dioxide), coniferous and deciduous sawdust mixture, and municipal sewage sludge with addition of mineral fertilisers on cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc contents in spring rape seeds and spring triticale grain. The results being obtained show that the granular fertilisers being tested did not increase the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in test plants above the acceptable standards. In most fertilisation objects treatments with these granular fertilisers, differences between the content of respective heavy metals in test plants were not significant. The increasing doses of granular fertilisers in most fertilisation objects did not have any significant effect on the increase in the content...
Read more

The use of industrial waste and municipal sludge for the production of fertilisation pellets

Edward KRZYWY, Ewa MOŻDŻER ? West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Land Cultivation and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture Please cite as: CHEMIK 2013, 67, 7, 620-627 Abstract: Four fertiliser mixtures were prepared from industrial sewage sludge from ?Police? Chemical Plant SA, municipal sewage sludge from the Municipal Wastewater Treatment  lant in Stargard Szczeciński, the mixture of sawdust from coniferous and deciduous trees (in 1:1 ratio), iron (II) sulphate (VI) 7-hydrate, and urea. The mixtures underwent granulation. The factor facilitating the granulation process was the addition of sodium lignosulphonate (2% of the mixture weight). This produced pellets with average resistance to mechanical damage. The pellets were light and exhibited average resistance to mechanical damage as compared to granulated mineral fertilisers. The levels of macroelements in the fertilisation pellets depended on the chemical composition and quantity converted into the weight of components used for production. The highest levels of macroelements were found in the pellets composed of municipal sewage sludge, the mixture of sawdust from coniferous and deciduous trees, and aqueous solutions of iron...
Read more