Joanna CZARNOCKA*, Małgorzata ODZIEMKOWSKA – PIMOT (Automotive Industry Institute), Warsaw, Poland
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 8, 419–425
Motor vehicle emissions are an important source of atmospheric air pollution, contributing to the development of respiratory system diseases, tumours, and genetic changes. International regulations discern some substances that are harmful to the environment, such as carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), or particulate matter (PM). The emissions of the chemical compounds mentioned above from most vehicles are subject to limitations imposed by European standards. The limits depend on vehicle type and have been laid down in standard requirements referred to as Euro 5, Euro 6, etc. . The acceptable emissions of other environmentally harmful substances are reduced by successive introduction of increasingly stringent quality requirements, which limit the sulphur, benzene, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents of motor fuels.
Among the fuels used in transport, diesel oil is the one that significantly contributes to the emission of particulate matter, with which PAHs are introduced among other pollutants into the environment. The PAHs make a group of over 100 chemical compounds and about 16 of them have been indicated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as substances proven to produce or potentially capable of producing carcinogenic and mutagenic effects.
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