Michał NIEMCZAK*, Ilona KĘDZIA, Zuzanna BARTOSZEWSKA – Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznań, Poland; Katarzyna MARCINKOWSKA – Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 9, 555–563
In the last two decades the interest in this fascinating group of compounds that are ionic liquids has been growing continuously . One of the most important properties of ionic liquids is their inflammability and non-volatility, for which they are considered slightly polluting substances [2, 3]. A new possibility of using ionic liquids is to incorporate a herbicidal anion in their structure. This action gives herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) . Thanks to the activity against unwanted vegetation, they can help to improve both quality and quantity of crops. HILs, due to their unique physicochemical properties, allow the reduction of an effective herbicide dose, as well as the control of its toxicity and soil mobility [4÷13]. Herbicidal anions that are usually used in synthesis of a herbicidal ionic liquid are groups derived from phenoxyacids such as (4-chloro- 2-methylphenoxy)acetic (MCPA), [4÷7], (2,4‑dichlorophenoxy) acetic (2,4‑D) [8, 9], 2-(4‑chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic (MCPP) [10, 11] and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butyric acid (MCPB) . Other substances used include derivatives of benzoic acid, e.g. dicamba , nicotinic acid, e.g. clopyralid , sulfonylureas, e.g Metsulfuron-methyl (MSM)  or one of the most popular non-selective herbicides – glyphosate . In the recent years, the 2nd generation of a herbicidal ionic liquid was also described, where a herbicidal anion was successfully combined with a cation exhibiting biological activity as a growth regulator  or fungicide .
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