Monika STASIEWICZ*, Anna TURGUŁA – Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Poznań, Poland
Please cite as: CHEMIK 2016, 70, 9, 564–569
One of the main problems of the agriculture is the presence of unwanted plants in the crops, which reduces harvest yield. The weeds compete with crops for light, water and mineral salts, thus increasing the costs of agricultural production, while decreasing the harvest. In order to maximize the production capacity per unit of farming area, plant protection products are applied, 90% of which are chemical formulations. Among many substances of herbicidal activity available on the market, special attention shall be paid to phenoxyherbicides, which include: 4-chloro-2- methylphenoxyacetic (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic (MCPP) and 4-(4-chloro- 2-methylphenoxy)butyric (MCPB) acid . Undeniable advantages of application of these herbicides is their high biological activity and selectivity, which helps to destroy the selected weed species with no negative impact on crops. Despite many attractive benefits, herbicides bring certain disadvantages, which mainly include their toxicity, high soil persistence and weeds gaining resistance to herbicides [2, 3]. In order to reduce the negative environmental impact of herbicides, it is possible to modify the existing and commonly used herbicides. Such an approach resulted in reports on herbicidal ionic liquids in the literature in 2011 . The salts with the following anions were described: MCPA [4÷7], 2,4-D [8÷9], MCPP , MCPB  and 4-CPA . The presence of cations with surface activity improves their wettability, which helps to reduce costs by using lower doses of herbicidal ionic liquids in relation to their commercial counterparts [4, 5].
Read more in pdf